Pakistan's global share of producing emerald gemstone is increasing slowely as huge deposits are estimated to be there. Emeralds in Pakistan have been discovered in four places up till date including Swat in himalyan mountain range of Swat district, Gandao in Mohmand agency, Barang in Bajaur agency and khaltaro in Gilgit baltistan out of these Swat remains the major one.
Swat emeralds from swat valley in Pakistan are found as hexagonal crystals mostly in small sizes but have an amazing brilliance with beautiful mystic corn green shade containing a hue of golden yellow in green; they form a lively green color unique to these mines. Medium to deep green color, unique transparency and feel of smoothness is their property.
Recent discovery of Trapiche type crystal which has 6 magnetite arms, the core is colorless and a green rim with light inner areas divided in 6 fractions is confined to Fizzaghat mines in Mingora region of Swat. The rim and core area are emerald and the arms are formed of graphite and hematite.
Inclusions in Swat emeralds: The inclusions consists of water, magnesite and nitrogen crystal, carbon dioxide in form of gas. The gasious inclusions are found both in trapiche and non trapiche raw crystals in form of CO2 - N2 and CH4. Other mineral inclusions are hematite, rutile, magnetite, graphite and siderite have been found. The emerald specimen found here contains high amount of chromium, iron, alkali metel which contributes to its color and shine.
Swat emeralds in their top saturated deep golden green tone, good clarity and in a considerable good size are amongst the worlds rarest gems and easily fetch over $1700-$2000 per carat. Some top Swat stones have sold for over $15000/ct at auctions and private sales. The transparent stones of commercial quality in these can be $40-$250/ct.
The color-clarity-cut defines the quality of the gem, then comes the carat weight and all these decides the worth of the stone. The premium Pakistan swat origin emeralds have a consistent even vivid color in them similar to Panjshir origin stones, but when iron presence is higher it turns the color to bluish which affects the quality; If the overtone is slightest it glorifies the color but if is more dominating then is not desired. Color zoning is also seen in these emeralds and those are not considered as high quality. Natural Pakistan origin emeralds are commonly inclusive with wide variety of inclusions, Mica and Jardin inclusions are common in them with rust and feathers so a clean stone in good size with smooth saturated color becomes rare and super expensive. Also rich chromium presence makes the gem stone to glow and show a green rich brilliant luster.
These mines are located few hundred kilometers north of Peshawar, most of these mines mentioned above are closed now other then Fizzat limiting its suply and making this gem even more rarer and highely priced.
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